controlled nuclear fusion

The controlled nuclear synthesis

(the elegant decision of an old problem by means of the cavitation)

 

The patent, given by the Russian Federal service of the intellectual property,
the patents and the trade marks ( "Rospatent")

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The first page of the description of the invention. (Below I gives
translation into the English language of the first and final phrases)

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The first red phrase of the description of the invention, given on this page is translated so:  "The invention concerns to area of initiation of controlled reactions of nuclear synthesis".

The final red phrase is translated so:  "Advantages of the invention consist in an opportunity of getting of controlled reaction nuclear synthesis".

 

The description of a mode of the decision of problem CNS:

(the article is written on the basis of four applications on the invention)

 

Probably, there is not big necessity to remind, that the problem of controlled nuclear synthesis - one of the major problems, which exist to modern mankind. According investigation of the World power advice, the reconnoitered resources of hydrocarbon fuel on the Earth remained on 50 - 80 years. The sole long-term energy source is a nuclear energy, which is result in process of division or synthesis. Meanwhile exploitation of the traditional atomic power stations, working on division of nucleus of uranium, results in serious problems for ecology. Process of thermonuclear synthesis is substantially free from the lacks inherent in process of the division of uranium. In reaction of synthesis not form long-lived radioactive isotopes, and as fuel for her be used heavy isotopes of hydrogen - deuterium and tritium. In liter of usual water contains approximately 0,03 gram heavy hydrogen, but in process of participation of this quantity of the heavy hydrogen in reactions of nuclear synthesis arise as much energy, how many at combustion of 300 liters of gasoline. Existing natural reserve of the heavy hydrogen on the Earth will suffice need of mankind in energy on billion years.

How to find of the decision of a problem of implementation of the reactions of the controlled nuclear synthesis?

Let's start, by perhaps, with the banal facts: we admit, that in our disposal there is a certain quantity of gases deuterium and tritium. What is necessary to make for a reaction of nuclear synthesis in this blend? The answer is well-known - it necessary strongly compress and heat up these gases, keeping them in such compressed and heated up condition as it is possible long (Lawson criterion).

Just it the researchers and attempt make during last 50 years with help a different TOKAMAKs, STELLARATORs and installations of laser synthesis. Practically the only thing, which for 50 years of work absolutely precisely can prove the apologists of traditional methods of the decision of problem CNS (supporters of the TOKAMAKs, ctellarators, muonic catalysis etc.) so it so, what the specified devices even if sometime and will work - gives of the energy, but because of the huge sizes and weight of them it will be impossible to establish on vehicles.   I.e., speaking differently,
TOKAMAK will be impossible to use on the midget car as an energy source for the automobile engine. . However all these installations are very expensive and have the huge sizes, and prospects of their use for production of energy remain rather foggy. (Very interesting article to this occasion was printed in russian magazine  "the Science and life" 1, 2000., pages 10 - 14: "Energy from the accelerator of particles" and 7, 2002., pages 9 - 12:  "The explosive energy".)

Meanwhile to researchers of nuclear synthesis relevantly more pay steadfast attention to one interesting phenomenon - on sonoluminescence.

The phenomenon of sonoluminescence in the Big Soviet Encyclopedia, released in 1979 year, you can see in article  "Cavitation", which consists in the following (free narration);

In process of emanation in a liquid of a sound with the amplitude of sound pressure surpassing some threshold size, during half-periods of decreased pressure arise the cavitation bubbles. The bubbles collapse during half-periods of compression, creating short-term (about 10-6seconds) impulse of pressure (up to 103 Mn/m2 104 kg/sm2 and more). Pressure at collapse of the cavitation a bubbles be raise if decrease of frequency of a sound and at increase of hydrostatic pressure; and he is higher in liquids with small pressure saturated pair. Collapse of bubbles is accompanied adiabatic heating of gas in bubbles up to temperature about 104 oC , than, apparently, and the is caused the fluorescence of bubbles in process of cavitation (so-called sonoluminescence.)

Thus, the phenomenon of sonoluminescence is in itself accompanied by rather high values of temperature and pressure which, however, is not be enough for getting of reactions of nuclear synthesis. (Anyway, but the specialists probably be not able to receive reaction of nuclear synthesis in simple experimental installations, more precisely they was not able to achieve realization of criterion Lowson's.) For an example I consider here necessary to mention two works, whose the authors have detected of neutrons in experiences by the cavitation. The first experiment after so many years has actually turned in the legend - the information on him can be found in the literature only accidentally. The second experience was made recently by E.A. Smorodov and R.N. Galiahmetov.

Nevertheless, will relevantly remind, what else in the 1919 year the lord Rayleigh, the known english physicist, has calculated, what on a final stage of collapse of the absolute empty spherical cavity develop infinitely large pressure and temperatures. Clearly, what the similar parameters: the indefinitely large pressure and temperatures as possible would match for initiation of reactions of controlled nuclear synthesis. The problem, nevertheless, consists in that, what the calculated indefinitely large values arise, only, if the collapse cavity will be absolutely empty. In practice, as already it was above marked, at realization of experiences at sonoluminescence, the cavitational cavities never are be absolutely empty - at them always in insignificant quantity there are fumes a liquid and the gases, dissolved in a liquid, therefore temperatures and pressure do not reach infinite values.

Nevertheless, if we find way to strengthen the process of the phenomenon sonoluminescence then it is possible to hope to receive by means of this phenomenon of reaction of controlled nuclear synthesis.

In principle the similar ideas are not new, they already be repeatedly expressed by the many experts and were repeatedly undertaken the appropriate experimental attempts.

(As an example I enumerate the following patents on inventions: 4333796 USA 08.06.1982 and 2096934 RU 20.11.1997). However the researchers not may achieve of the positive result (reactions of nuclear synthesis)

Perhaps, had sense to try to understand the reasons of misfortunes of researchers and to elaborate concrete recommendations for their elimination. It will allow to construct on the basis of the phenomenon sonoluminescence very simple, cheap and compact equipments of controlled nuclear synthesis.

First of all, it is necessary to note on fact, what the authors of all higher named inventions offered to use for amplification of process cosonoluminescence, induced in liquid environment, by means of the hollow cylindrical or spherical oscillators, theirs walls make radial fluctuations. (You can look of the images 1, 2 and 3).

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Drawing 1.

 

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Drawing 2.

 

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Drawing 3.

 

The image 2 show a cylindrical oscillator in a vertical section. A image 3 - the view from above. On all images, submitted here, thick arrows designate a directions of radial fluctuations of walls of a cylindrical oscillator. In other words, authors of the listed patents, were going to receive a concentration of energy of sound fluctuations in the geometrical centres of symmetry of oscillators.

Theoretically in similar oscillators the increase of amplitude of pressure of a sound wave would be in inverse proportion to distance from the geometrical centre of symmetry of a oscillator or to a square of distance, for a spherical oscillator:

                                P ≈ 1/x        or         P ≈ 1/x2,                (1)

 

Where: P - amplitude of pressure of fluctuations in a sound wave, x - distance from the centre of geometrical symmetry of a oscillator

We can look on image 4, on which by means of the dash line is shown the diagram of hyperbolic increase of amplitude of pressure at the approach to a geometrical axis of a cylindrical oscillator).

From formulas 1 is visible, what if x → 0, then P → ∞.

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Drawing 4.

 

Thus, as it was earlier specified, calculation of sizes of pressure and temperatures on the final stage of collapse of the absolute empty cavitational cavities in itself already gives infinite large values. And if besides it the collapse of this absolute empty cavitational cavities we make with help of the focused sound waves, then the value of sizes t and p on the final stage of process will have calculating values, proportional 2 (or 3 for a spherical oscillator). Therefore there is a probability, that at the appropriate sizes of oscillators in their geometrical centres it will be possible to receive conditions, sufficient for implementation of reactions of nuclear synthesis, even despite of presence of gases in cavitational cavities.

In principle, it is correct reasonings.

  However the mistake of researchers in this, what at use for excitation of radial fluctuations of walls of oscillators of sine wave or any other electric signal, which have half-periods with equal to duration, be impossibly receiving significant amplification of the phenomenon of sonoluminescence in the geometrical centers of symmetry.

In particular, the similar mistake has been admitted by authors of the sensational work of group of Taleyarkhan's etc. These researchers for producing and collapse of the cavitational bubbles in the geometrical center of symmetry of a cylindrical oscillator used sine wave sound waves (harmonic waves) with frequency 19,3 kHz. As a result authors of the specified work did the foam from the set cavitational bubbles near to the geometrical center of symmetry of a cylindrical oscillator. But foam, as everybody knows, is the good acoustic insulation material, because of it the group of Taleyarkhan's not can concentrate the energy, which sufficient for excitation of the cavitational nuclear synthesis directly in the geometrical center of symmetry of a cylindrical oscillator - the foam shielded passage of a sound. Therefore, not looking at enough thorough mathematical calculations, which, how it should seem, testify to an opportunity sonofusion at a collapse of the gas bubble, the group of Taleyarkhan's in practice did not manage to receive indisputable experimental proofs of existence of nuclear reactions in the cavitational processes. And the reason of misfortune of researchers from this international group is in use of harmonious sound waves. (Here you can see this work and my comments).

(The note: in 2006 the researchers E.A.Smorodov and R.N.Galiakhmetov come to a similar conclusion about impossibility to use sine sound waves for amplification of the cavitation processes. Look their article:  " Calculation of installation for cumulation of energy in gas bubbles ", which was duplicated from the INTERNET.)

Really, if we carefully investigate this question, then we come to a unequivocal conclusion what to receive of the stationary wave, caused by a sine wave signal, in cylindrical or spherical oscillators impossibly, if in the geometrical centre of symmetry of a oscillator there is a process of liberation of energy.

For understanding, why in spherical or cylindrical oscillators impossibly effectively using of the standing waves, caused by a sine wave signal, for excitation of processes sonoluminescence and to receive due to it reactions of nuclear synthesis, we use receptions widely distributed in mathematics  "reasoning from contrary" and  "reduction ad absurdum". Let's make an assumption, which afterward in process of the logic analysis lead us to the contradiction with this, made earlier, an assumption

We now mentally shall present (we shall make an assumption, which contradicting to the experimental facts), that at use of standing sound waves in the centres of symmetry of cylindrical or spherical oscillators is observed very powerful liberation of energy - there occur the nuclear microexplosions

Now it will be pertinent to remind, what represents from itself the standing wave in strict mathematical sense. Look through the book: B.M. Javorsky, J.A. Seleznev "The reference book on a physics" (for those, who, matriculate and for self-education). Publishing house:  "Science". The main edition of the physical and mathematical literature, 1984; with changes in 1989. Page 328:

"The special case of interference of waves is the standing waves. The standing wave in the general case is formed as a result of imposing two waves extending in mutual opposite directions, if the interfering waves satisfy to the following conditions: their frequencies, amplitude and a direction of fluctuations should be identical."

In this a definition I have specially emphasized words: frequencies and amplitudes should be identical.

In a case with focusing of the sound waves in spherical or cylindrical oscillators and receiving due to it of the nuclear microexplosions, then two conditions from the very outset, by the definition, here be not carried out. For we from the very outset try to receive in the centre of symmetry of the additional liberation of energy from nuclear reactions, in it, as a matter of fact, and consists our purpose. In a liquid are simultaneously spread a two waves: the Initial (Incoming) wave, diffusive from walls of oscillator to the centre of symmetry of an oscillator and the Return wave, diffusive from the centre of symmetry after collapse of a cavitational cavities (after will be the nuclear microexplosion). Then the Return wave will have bigger energy (bigger amplitude) in comparison with the Incoming wave, diffusive from walls of an oscillator.

Second, it is necessary to take into account, that a liquid in the centre of symmetry of an oscillator before collapse of the cavitational of bubbles by standing waves was already strongly compressed by high pressure of the Incoming wave. And then in moment of the collapse of the cavitational cavities, when appeared a nuclear microexplosion (an assumption made by us), the layers of a liquid will are compressed even more, therefore the conditions of spread of sound waves will change. In view of the nonlinear characteristic of potential energy of interaction of molecules of a liquid, becomes clear, that the initial speed of spread of the Return wave, caused by nuclear microexplosion, and diffusive from the centre symmetry of an oscillator, there will be much more, than a speed of an Incoming wave, which earlier carried out collapse of the cavitational of bubbles.

Thirdly, on account of high pressures near the centre of symmetry will arise the strong nonlinear effects, for which is characteristic occurrence of the additional harmonics. (It is possible to speak, what in nonlinear environments of a wave interact among themselves, and frequently this interaction occurs thus, that to us by merely intuitively very difficultly will do of prediction of the dynamics of this interaction. And all the more, it is difficult to make forecasts of dynamics interactions in the liquid environment, which has a nonlinearity gradient - in centre of the sound oscillators these a nonlinear effects is very strong, at the periphery, is closer to walls of oscillators, they descend - to come to naught).

All these factors (different amplitudes and speeds of counter waves, additional harmonics) contradict conditions of existence of a standing wave in classical sense of this notion.

Thus, we receive of a contradiction, from which we do the conclusion: if in the geometrical centre of symmetry of oscillators exist the nuclear microexplosions, then in a liquid, for filling of the oscillator, can't exist the standing waves. At nuclear explosions in oscillators there will be a full chaos, but by no means not a standing wave. But on the other hand will the true and the converse assertion: we can not used of the standing waves for effective amplification of the phenomenon sonoluminescence, and, how consequence, for getting of the reactions of nuclear synthesis, because then will be a defocusing of energy of sound waves.

I.e., in other words, we can not use for receiving of the nuclear microexplosions in the centres of symmetry of the oscillators an electric signal of the sine wave form or the any other bipolar electric signal in which duration of half-periods coincides.

(If just now given thesis was incorrect, i.e. if in nature there was an opportunity of origin of reactions of nuclear synthesis in cylindrical vessels with the help of standing sound waves, then the world around would turn for all mankind at the continuous accident man-caused. For the mankind has created around of itself huge quantity of the cylindrical tankages, which will filled with liquids, it is enough to recollect even of the simple water-pipe in city, which have poly-kilometer pipes rather decent diameter, or railway tanks. The quite little concussion of these cylindrical tankages could result in occurrence in these tankages of the self-sustaining the standing sound waves, which evoke in the geometrical centres of symmetry of tankages nuclear microexplosions. And this process is self-sustaining of oneself, and on his final stage - the explosion, which resulting in destruction of cylindrical tancage. However, as far as I know, anywhere in the world the similar explosive phenomena in the many-kilometer a pipelines are not observed or at transportation of tens thousand railway tanks. On the other hand formulas 1 and all physics accompanying them, are too simple, and in them impossibly any mistake. Therefore will only one opportunity for an explanation of failures of the experimenters, which already trying to receive liberation of energy by means of focussing standing waves, it - primary incompatibility of reactions of nuclear synthesis and standing waves.)

Here perhaps for visualization will opportunely to use the following electrotechnical analogy: we can consider the phenomenon of amplification of the sonoluminescence by means of focusing of energy of sound waves in the geometrical centres of symmetry of a cylindrical or spherical oscillators and receiving by means this of the reactions of nuclear synthesis, as a certain nonlinear nuclear amplifier. See the drawing 5, where the this phenomenon is conditionally designated by the operational amplifier. (For the greater visualization I on the operational amplifier depict the stylized atom.

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Drawing 5.

 

The injection of an initial signal on the entrance of the operational amplifier how it would seem, should be how reason's of occurrence of more powerful signal on an exit.

Question: why similar scenario development of the event is not observed on practice at use of the standing waves (in other words, at The injection on an input of our nuclear operational amplifier of periodic fluctuations, at which half-periods have identical duration)?

The affair will so, that at use of standing waves for excitation of the sonoluminescence in spherical or cylindrical oscillators, i.e. at injection on the entrance of the nuclear operational amplifier of periodic fluctuations, which have of the half-periods of identical duration, then there arise a nonlinear negative feedback, which is caused by the Return wave, diffusive in a liquid after appearance of first attributes of the beginning of nuclear reactions in the centre of symmetry of an oscillator. In addition, this Return wave hinder the further process of focusing of energy in the centre of symmetry and not allow of the further amplification of process of the sonoluminescence. (On a drawing 4 the this negative feed-back is designated by a wire going with an exit of the operational amplifier on the his the inverting input.) Therefore all attempts of a researchers of use of the focusing on standing waves have turned as a matter of fact to a forcing of energy on all amount of the liquid, a filling of the sound oscillator. And only small part of energy sent by researchers in the oscillator, is focused in local zone, causing insignificant amplification of passing of the phenomenon sonoluminescence in the centres of symmetry of the oscillator.

Thus, use for focusing of the standing waves (in other words, use of the bipolar electric signals with half-periods of identical duration) be absolutely hopeless enterprise.

Indirect acknowledgement of the assumption stated by me, on incompatibility of getting of nuclear reactions and the standing waves raised by sine wave signals, be the fact of increase of pressure is at collapse of cavitational bubbles, if decrease of frequency of the sound, specified in already named by me to quotation from the Big Soviet Encyclopedia. Apparently, the many researchers simply ignored this circumstance. (Unfortunately, I do not have opportunity in the journal article in detail to analyze this fact.)

Exit from the arisen difficulty we can found so: use for amplification of passing sonoluminescence of the running waves caused by electric signals of the special form. I.e. for guaranteed amplification of the phenomenon sonoluminescence in each separate act of the collapse cavitational cavities we should force oscillate of the walls of the sound oscillator in other manner (not as sine wave).

The possible form of such electric signals, which generate fluctuations of walls of a oscillator, is submitted on a drawing 6, where I show theirs the appropriate temporary diagram.

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Drawing 6.

 

The period of the bipolar pulse causing one cycle of work of an oscillator (one act of collapse cavitational cavities in the centre of symmetry of a oscillator), is equal: 1 + 2 + 3, i.e. consists of three stages.

In the beginning of each period of fluctuations the forward front A - B of a bipolar pulse of electric current, which causes a abrupt radial distension of walls of oscillator during time
1 sufficient for that, in order to a running wave of lowered pressure [you can see the drawing 7] had time for spread with velocity v1, which close to usual velocity of a sound (for the given liquid) from walls to centre of symmetry of oscillator and to create there of cavitations of a bubbles, before to centre of symmetry will come later the travelling wave with increased pressure. (At the same time because of a radial distension there will happen the elastic deformation of walls of oscillator and in them will is stored energy.)

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Drawing 7.

 

After of a time interval 1 polarity of the electric current on the diagram (see drawing 6) sharply varies (the front C - D) and the walls of oscillator quickly (sharply) undergo radial compression during of time 2, this interval of the time be essential smaller of the interval time, which was earlier spent for diffusion of a running wave of the lowered pressure and formation by her of the cavitational cavities in the geometrical centre of symmetry of an oscillator. I.e. 1 be more, than 2. Thus we do the liberation of the energy, which earlier was reserved on doing of elastic deformation of a radial dilatation of walls of oscillator, but also we else vastly press from outside on walls of oscillator by an electromagnetic field, because the direction of an electric current in bipolar pulse will change. Here too it is necessary to pay attention to that circumstance, that on the diagram, shown on a figure 6, amplitude “D” of an electric current, responsible for the compression of walls of oscillator on stage 2, will considerably more of the amplitude “B” of the electric current responsible for a stretching of walls of a oscillator on stage 1. I.e. for formation of the wave compression, which later we will use for collapses of the cavitation bubble, we is used a electric current with amplitude more, than for formation of a previous wave of low pressure. Therefore amplitude of a wave of the raised pressure will be from the very outset considerably more in comparison with the amplitude of a wave of low pressure. In result it appear the traveling wave of high pressure , which spread with gradually increasing of velocity from walls to center of symmetry of oscillator. You look the drawing 8, on which I demonstrate, what in the direction of centre of symmetry of oscillator simultaneously will is spread of wave with low pressure and of a wave with high pressure .

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Drawing 8.

 

And necessary draw attention, that on the final stage, at the approach to the geometrical centre of symmetry of the oscillator, speed of distribution of a running wave of the high pressure can fundamentally exceed usual speed of distribution of a sound in the given liquid - the wave of the high pressure be re-born in the blast wave.

(The final instant of distribution of two travelling waves is shown on the drawing 9 - in centre of symmetry of oscillator exist cavitational a cavity, which be a surrounded the with different of a directions by the travelling wave of high pressure. And then the dynamic pressure of layers of a liquid, which surround of the cavitation cavity, thousandfold exceed average static pressure of a liquid, which is filling internal volume of oscillator. In these conditions and occurs collapse cavitations of cavities in centres of symmetry of oscillators.)

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Drawing 9.

 

Here the time interval: 2 it is time, which we needes for spread out of the traveling wave of high pressure with speed, which exceeding sound, from walls to the geometrical centre of symmetry of the oscillator.

Further, how it is visible from the diagram represented on a drawing 6, in an electric signal, used for excitation of fluctuations of walls of a oscillator, follows the abrupt recession of an electric current. In a cycle of work of a oscillator follows most long stage:

During this time in the oscillator the sound fluctuations caused by nuclear microexplosion, resulting from the collapse of the cavitational cavities, should stop, or the amplitude of these waves should become so small that they any more could not hinder recurrence of a work cycle, i.e. to the new act of generation-collapse of the cavitational cavities.

Upon termination of a stage 3 all process of excitation of fluctuations of walls of a oscillator repeatedly repeats

Such method of excitation of fluctuations of walls of oscillator has significant advantage in comparison with method, in which the excitation of oscillator comes with the help of the sinusoidal of electric signal or of electric signal, which be as rectangular meander.

Affair be thus, what at such mode of excitation of fluctuations the energy, with which collapse of a cavitational of bubbles on an axis cylindrical oscillator, can exceed in many times, at comparison with those energy, which will be observed by at use of the standing sound waves. This fact is explained thus, what the front rise-up portion of pulse of compression wave, shove the subsequent layers of a liquid, and at approaching an axis of the cylinder (to centre of symmetry of sphere) of velocity of front of the wave of high pressure can be fundamentally more, than a usual velocity of distribution of a sound for the given liquid, here by in words:  "usual velocity" be implied speed of distribution of a sound in water at the pressure: Pstat. (This phenomenon is caused by that, what the pressure in a wave of compression will have very strong increase at movement of a travelling wave to geometrical axis of cylindrical oscillator. The big pressures vary elastic characteristics of a liquid, because be increase the forces of repulsion between molecules. Practically all a kinetic energy by a travelling wave, distributed in all mass of a liquid, which situated in a volume cylindrical oscillator, pass to a very subtle layers of a liquid, which surround bubbles of vacuum, which earlier exist on an axis of the cylindrical oscillator. On a drawing 9 is show of distribution of meanings of pressure in cylindrical oscillator for one very little instant up to collapse cavitations bubbles. Height of a peaks of pressure probably will a little bit exceeds limit, which is determined by hyperbole. Thus, almost all energy of fluctuations of walls cylindrical oscillator focus in very small volume. Under such circumstances an energy for process of annihilation of the cavitations bubbles, how I earlier already did talk, will much more, what in many times raises probability of passing of nuclear reactions.

(At the same time, now it is necessary to take into account one subtlety: the velocity of diffusion of a wave of low pressure will have usual velocity of a sound, while the wave of compression will have velocity, which will appreciably large especially at the final stage of the distribution. Therefore in view of the mentioned peculiarity, the duration of a stage 1 (the time) in stimulating of bipolar pulses should be selected a thus, so as the wave of high pressure no would overtake and not be able to destroy a wave of low pressure, i.e., so as in centre of symmetry of the oscillator the wave of low pressure had the time for creating of a quasi-vacuum bubbles.)

And there is no necessity passively  expect of end of a stage 3, i.e. that moment, when the sound fluctuations, caused by nuclear microexplosion, will ourselves be stopped in a oscillator. The Return sound wave, caused by nuclear microexplosions, have of the well-ordered structure and easily can be used for liberation of the electric power directly by walls of a oscillator, which oscillate, by use of the converse piezoelectric effect, if the oscillator is made from piezoelectric, or by means of the phenomena of an electromagnetic induction, if for work of a oscillator use electromagnets. Thus "we kill three birds with one stone" - firstly, we produce of the electric power, second, we reduce duration of a stage 3 (due to effective exhaust of energy of fluctuations of the Return wave caused by nuclear microexplosion, and transformation her in the electric power). And thirdly, as consequence, we raise general efficiency of work of a source of a nuclear energy - we increased, due to reduction of a stage 3, of the frequency of consecution of the acts of formation - collapse of the new cavitational cavities, as much as possible, approaching hers the frequency to frequency of a sine wave signal.

Besides it is necessary to pay attention that on the diagram represented on a drawing 6, at positive electric emission (rejection), responsible for formation in oscillators of a running wave of high pressure, the forward front C-D - abrupt. And it is by no means not casual. after all we make collapse of the cavitational cavities exactly by forward front of a running wave of the high pressure and if he will be more abruptly, then the phenomenon sonoluminescence be carried out more intensively. Therefore it is necessary to pay special attention to a question of formation of a steepness of forward front C-D of the stimulating pulse.

The running sound waves of unloading-compression, caused by bipolar electric pulses, which is represented on a drawing 6, will have unique, and in another measure, mutually exclusive properties:

Firstly, they acquire quality of long-range, which be characteristic for sound waves of low frequency.

And, second, for the account of maximum abrupt forward front C-D of positive emission (rejection) of an electric signal the running waves of the high pressure will get the high focusing, peculiar to waves of high frequency. In aggregate these properties will allow better to concentrate energy of a running wave of the high pressure on cavitational cavities.

The special adaptive electronics, which is orientated on an amplitude of the electric voltage generated by walls of a oscillator during influence on them of the Return wave, which caused by nuclear microexplosion, periodically slightly varies duration of stages 1, 2, 3 in the stimulating pulses, achieve thanks to it of optimum power of the installation. (Creation of electronic adaptive circuits already especially the routine task, and practically not have any creative beginning. Therefore on this simple technical question the author will not stop.)

As a matter of fact, similar cylindrical or spherical oscillators, which have radial fluctuations of walls be carried out by bipolar electric signals, by the form, reminding of the diagram, represented on a drawing 6, represent as cheap and compact the impulse atom-smashers on counter beams with high density.

Now we shall look of general circuit of the thermonuclear power installation, working with using of the phenomenon sonoluminescence [see drawing 10]. She reminds by the structure of the usual double-circuit nuclear reactor, only instead of the uranium reactor, we use cylindrical oscillator he is designated on a drawing 10 as number 1.

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Drawing 10.

 

The first contour is filled with heavy water with the salts dissolved in her: 6Li and gases: heavy hydrogen and tritium. By numeral of 2 I designates a zone of sound irradiation of a liquid (zone where is passing of reactions of nuclear synthesis). Numeral 3 designates a tube, along which from sonoluminescence be outflow of hot water. Numeral 4 is designated of the heat exchanger. Numeral 5 - device for satiation of heavy water by gases tritium and heavy hydrogen. Numeral 6 is rotary pump, for pumping heavy water through sonoluminescence. The hot steam from by the heat exchanger 4 will rotate the turbine 7, which is conjugate with electric generator 8. By numeral 9 is designated else one the heat-exchanger, the heated up water from which follow by a tube 10 for household needs of the inhabitants, living by a beside electric station (for the district heating and the hot running water). By numerals 11 and 12 designate else two rotary pumps. Besides, as well as in case of with a traditional uranium reactor, around of a sound oscillator and the first contour we can install the radiation protection, which will make preventing of exit of radiation from the device. (On this figure she is not shown).


Very interesting idea was offered to M.A. Margulis - by the inventor: "The mode of getting of high-temperature plasma and realization of thermonuclear reactions" (already mentioned by me the patent 2096934 RU). However this invention in the engineering attitude was bad considered by his author, so in particular he offered in the description of own invention and in the formula of the invention a few difficultly, or is not clear how, for carry out technological processes. For example, he offers to use "the special metering device, which give of the gas vial" in a zone of sound fluctuations with density of power not less than 1014 watt · cm-3 - I doubt, that any device is capable to sustain long stay in a zone with such density of power, which typical for implementation of nuclear reactions. (The reader once again can look the drawing from specification of the patent of M.A. Margulis's.) Afterward mister M.A. Margulis's by some miracle offers to delete of the cavitation bubble from area with the specified power and to replace with his new portion of gases.

I even do not speak, what the author of the patent 2096934 RU has not described in the own work of the structure of the electric pulses, similar themes, which are submitted in this article on the drawing 6.

However in the invention as I already marked, mister Margulis M.A. has put forward rather perspective idea: amplification of process sonoluminescence, which realizations in the geometrical centres of symmetry of cylindrical or spherical oscillators with help of the constant electric field.

Now it is possible to consider his idea, but will necessary more correctly form her from the engineering point of view (see drawing 11).

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Drawing 11.

 

Through a cylindrical vessel 1 is flowing the dielectric liquid 2, sated with gases heavy hydrogen and tritium. On the outside of a vessel have the cylindrical oscillator 3, which get power of fluctuations from an external source of electric signals, and this signal remind by form of the signals, represented on a drawing 6 (this external source on a drawing 11 is not shown). Along a geometrical axis of a cylindrical vessel 1 are located coaxially two electrodes 4, on which from an external source 5 send the bipolar pulses. The impulses running sound waves of unload-compression, caused in a liquid by fluctuations of a cylindrical oscillator, cyclically beget in the geometrical centre of symmetry cavitational cavities, which on a drawing 11 are shown as little cylinder 6. Then on the second stage, at the moment collapse of the cavitational little cylinder the running wave of the high pressure, along an axis this the little cylinder be formed the electric-conducted plasma. The electric field originating on electrodes 4, causes polarization of this plasma (movement of her electric charges) or even the electric breakdown along an axis of a cylindrical vessel. As a result of similar movement of electric charges (the flow of an electric current) plasma will receive additional warming up, according to the law of the Joule - Lenz's.

Simultaneously plasma little cylinder be continue undergo the radial reduction by a running wave of the high pressure - there will arise a peculiar FORCED the "pinch-effect". As a result of all these measures will raise the probability of execution of reaction of nuclear synthesis.

For diminution of erosion of the electrodes 4, caused by influence cavitation, they are removed from a zone of the immediate focused sound influence of a oscillator 3.

And for diminution of electrochemical erosion of electrodes, how already I point out, the electric voltage, submitted on electrodes 4, has variable character as the bipolar pulses, which periodically changing the polarity after each act of the collapse of the cavitational cavities.

( On a drawing 12 will simultaneously show of the time diagrams of the bipolar electric pulses, which provoke in oscillators of the running waves unload-compression, and the bipolar pulses, submitted on electrodes 4. The specified drawing gives representation about synchronization of the these two kinds of pulses: the forward front C-D in the electric pulse, which provoke in a cylindrical oscillator a running wave of the high pressure and afterward make collapse of the cavitational cavities, beget, with some delay, of the bipolar pulses, submitted on electrodes 4).

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Drawing 12.

 

However threat cavitational and electrochemical erosion of electrodes 4 all the same remain, what is lack of the device represented on a drawing 11, since reduces his reliability. It is possible to hope, what we will have a success, if in more simple the nonelectrode circuit, for getting reactions of controlled nuclear synthesis will use only of the one focussing of the sound running waves unload-compression.

(Also it is necessary to remind, what at 1950-55 years the large soviet physicist P.L. Kapitsa has created the microwaves generators of new type, which give power up to 300 kw in a continuous mode, and has found out, what in the high-frequency electric discharge in dense gases is formed the stable plasma cord, prospective temperature of the electrons in which 105-106 K. In due time this work (published in 1969 year) has opened a new direction of researches in the field of realization of controlled thermonuclear synthesis. In this connection it is possible to try to use in the device, submitted here by me, for increase of phenomena of thermonuclear reactions of the microwave the radiation, which we dispatch on the electrodes 4. However it is necessary to realize, what the process collapse of cavitational cavities it is quickly proceeding process, therefore make sense do sending of the microwave radiation on electrodes 4 only in the moment of a collapse of bubbles).

Anyway, the reasonings submitted here open a fine opportunity of getting of reactions of controlled nuclear synthesis. And, what very importantly, allow to make it ways, much more simple and incomparable cheaper, than at use the TOKAMAKs and other grandiose constructions.

Moreover, is quite possible, that the devices considered here appear rather compact, because of it they further can be used directly on autonomous vehicles, such diminutiveness probably never should be expected from other traditional projects of installations of nuclear synthesis.

Now we shall discuss some, only technical questions of manufacturing of sound oscillators and the electronic circuits inducing electric pulses of a necessary structure.

In the beginning we shall consider possible designs of oscillators.

Here we have such opportunities:

Firstly, use of piezoelectric materials. The oscillator essentially can represent the following device (see a drawing 13): the hollow cylinder, with rather thin metal walls 1 and the internal cavity, which in a consequence is filled by a liquid 2, where will make generating and collapse of the cavitational cavities. This cylinder 1 is used also as one of electrodes on which attach the electric voltage, forcing the oscillator to vibrate. The second electrode in a design of a oscillator is submitted by the external thick-walled metal cylinder 3. The gap between these metal cylinders is filled with substance 4, having piezoelectric properties.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 13.

 

With the help of the substances with the piezoelectric effect, we can do of the SPHERICAL OSCILLATOR, you can see of the drawing 14, where by means of the number 1 be marked an internal metal spherical cavity of the oscillator, the number 2 - it the substance having the piezoelectric effect, the number 3 - an external massive spherical environment of a oscillator. By means of the number 4 I show the tubes, there be the liquid flow through the oscillator.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 14.

 

We can make the spherical, as well as cylindrical, piezoelectric oscillators from the lead zirconate titanate, PZT, - from the ceramics, for which during processing we can give any form. The technology of creation of a hollow spherical radiator is similar to creation of the fusform camera of the one-bubble cavitational reactor - see the text after a drawing № 40).
However, the substances, which have of the piezoelectric effect, be not enough stable to radiation and consequently not so well for use in a thermonuclear reactor. Besides, the phenomenon of the converse piezoelectric effect has small the coefficient of efficiency. Therefore below will be considered the opportunity of creation of spherical oscillators with electromagnetic focusing.
Other way of excitation of radial fluctuations of a cylindrical oscillator differs so, that instead of a variable electric field it is supposed to use a variable magnetic field. Similar oscillators already exist and are described in the literature. However it is possible to offer and other designs of the electromagnetic oscillatotrs, two of them are considered below.
The basic design of such oscillator is shown on a drawing 15, where numbers 1 designate section of walls of a cylindrical oscillator (in this case he is made of a ferromagnetic alloy). The numbers 2 designate walls of the massive external cylinder (he also is made from ferromagnetic). Between an external surface of a cylindrical radiator and walls of an internal cavity of the big (covering) cylinder there is a gap 3, filled with gas.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 15.

 

On surfaces of details 1 and 2 there are grooves in which are stacked the windings (a wire of electromagnetic coils).

The direction of an electric current in wires is shown by a manner, traditional for the electrical engineers: a circle with "+" in the centre, if the electric current has a direction "from us" and circle with " . " in the centre, if the electric current is directed "to us".

On a drawing 15 is shown a direction of electric currents in rings cylindrical oscillator and in rings of external covering cylinder at the time t1. And a direction of electric currents be so, that walls cylindrical oscillator and walls of external cylinder repulse each other by a magnetic field. Thus inner the cylindrical oscillator undergo of deformation of radial compression.

On the drawing 16 be show the same system: "a cylindrical oscillator - the external cylinder" at the time t2, after the lapse of certain time - after a distension of walls of a radiator. Thus, the direction of an electric current in rings of external cylinder has exchanged in the opposite direction (in comparison with drawing 15) and now the walls internal cylindrical oscillator will be attraction by a magnetic field to walls of the external massive cylinder. In these conditions cylindrical oscillator will undergo deformation of a radial extension.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 16.

 

The rings (the windings) of electric wires on cylindrical oscillator are connected consistently and get electric energy from one electrical direct-current source. On a drawing 17 schematically shown such consecutive connection of electric wires (by numeral 1 is designated cylindrical oscillator). The ring coils wires 2 are coiled in one direction, the ring coils wires 3 have other direction of coiled. That part of the ring the coils, which is closed cylindrical oscillator, on a drawing 17 be shown as the dotted line). Both ring coils of wires are connected consistently (direction of a electric current in wires, which is join of electric rings, be  "from below is to upwards") however direction of electric current in rings 2 and 3 will be different, it on a drawing 17 reveal a symbols with "+" and " . " in circles, which I pictured near to specified electric rings.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 17.

 

The ring coils of electric wires of the external cylinder are also connected consistently one after another, as and the direction of wires in their alternate coils on cylindrical oscillator. However the feeding of electric power on ring coils of the external massive cylinder be put into effect already from an electric source with alternating voltage.

Probably, also other, radial, a disposition of coils of electromagnets on a surface of a cylindrical oscillator, look a drawing 18, where is shown the axonometric kind of the internal cylinder of a oscillator. The internal cylinder of a radiator 1 has on the external surface the even number of ledges 2, limited to small skirtings 3. On these ledges coils the wires of coils also having consecutive connection. The skirtings prohibit jumps of the wires with of the electromagnetic coils.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 18.

 

The external massive cylinder of a oscillator too has a similar number of ledges with skirtings, only they are directed to inside, on meet to ledges of the internal cylinder. On these ledges also are coiled the coils of a wire. The general structure of a oscillator (a positional relationship of small and big cylinders) is shown in a transverse incision on a drawing 19.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 19.

 

At some sense, the similar disposition of coils of electromagnets on details of a oscillator repeats a traditional disposition of coils of a rotor and stator in electric motors of a direct current. Therefore manufacturing of similar oscillators should not meet the big difficulties by the technologists.

Is necessary also take into account, what in the process of work of oscillators in the geometrical centres of symmetry will be arising the local nuclear microexplosions (we exactly and wants to achieve the it). Thus from the geometrical centre of symmetry will be spread out in the direction to the walls of a oscillator a shock wave, in which the amplitude of pressure will exceed considerably amplitude of the pressure of the running waves, which earlier have made collapse of the cavitational cavities in the geometrical centre of symmetry of the oscillator. By virtue of it for manufacture of the walls of a oscillators it is supposed to use metal alloys with amorphous structure of an disposition of atoms, which, as is known, have higher mechanical characteristics in comparison with polycrystal alloys of metals. (The technology of production of the thick goods from the amorphous metal alloys is described by me in one of applications on a group of inventions).

Now we shall discuss questions of excitation of electromagnetic pulses.

Thus, independent from modes, which we shall choose for excitation of mechanical fluctuations of walls of the sound oscillators (the variable magnetic field's or the piezoelectric effect), in any case the electronics, which responsible for it, can be schematically submitted by the alike set of elements, how it I show on the drawings 20 and 21. (Further with a view of economy of a place I shall be limited only to discussion of the electronic schemes stimulating mechanical fluctuations of oscillators, with the help of a variable magnetic field. Since these electronic schemes actually are equally suitable and for the organization of work of oscillators, with using of piezoelectric effect. And only in special, rare cases when distinctions will be essential, I shall give the appropriate descriptions of work of electronic schemes with use of piezoelements.)

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Drawing 20.

 

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Drawing 21.

 

On a drawing 20 symbol  "L" - conditionally designates a set of the inductive coils, responsible from excitation of radial mechanical fluctuations of walls of cylindrical oscillator. In these coils should flow a variable electric current, which arises from what we with the help of three-position switch SA1 alternately connect coils of inductance L to sources of direct electric current GB1 and GB2.

On a drawing 21 instead of the inductance coil is conditionally represented the condenser C1, in which between metallic plates we be having in quality dielectric of the substance with piezoelectric effect. (Thus, at least in the literature on electronics, usually depict of the piezoelectric crystal oscillator.)

Here on drawings 20 and 21 for simplicity of explanation are conditionally shown three-position mechanical switches: SA1. Actually, in the real existent by cylindrical oscillator or spherical oscillator, certainly, should be used such the electric schemes, which will having the all switches electronic, collected on transistors or on others of the bistable electronic elements, and they will be controlled external by the clock pulses. Later I still revert to this question, and also show necessary schemes of switches on the transistors, but for now, for simplicity of a representation I will do display on the drawings of the electric schemes with the mechanical switches.

Thus it is necessary to notice, that the polarity of joining (of connection) of sources of constant voltage GB1 and GB2 to the coil L appears different, depending on that, in which of the double by outermost positions is located the mobile contact of the three-position switch SA1. Therefore through the coil L will be flowing the electric current, or in one, or in the another by a direction. So quick moving of mobile contact of switch SA1 in the extremely the left position connects to the coil of inductance L the left source of constant voltage GB1, what will do in the coil of inductance L the electric current in the direction from top-down.

The moment of time t
0 of joining of coil L to GB1 can be demonstrated on the waveform diagram by a signal of inclusion (see a drawing 22).

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Drawing 22.

 

Us further will interest of the such characteristic of this signal of inclusion as a steepness of forward front  "A" -  "B".

We shall arrange, that such jerky signal of inclusion with a direction of an electric current how top-down, which flow in wires of the coil L, evoke in cylindrical oscillator by the own first front a radial distension of walls of a sound oscillator and as consequence in a liquid filling an internal volume of a oscillator, will start spread in the direction to the geometrical centre of symmetry cylindrical oscillator a traveling wave of the lowered pressure. Which later will created in the geometrical centre of symmetry of a oscillator necessary for us of the cavitation cavities.

After the expiration of the time τ1 quick moving of mobile contact of three-position switch SA1 in the extremely right-hand position will disconnect L from the source GB1, and will connect to coil L of the source GB2, which already have the other polarity and the more high-voltage. Thus, the time diagram of electric currents now will so, how be shown on a drawing 23.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 23.

 

The direction of an electric current in the coil has sharply changed and now walls cylindrical oscillator will undergo to all-round radial compression by a magnetic field. Thus in cylindrical oscillator there appear the travelling shock wave with the increased pressure, which spread with increasing speed in a direction to the geometrical centre of symmetry cylindrical oscillator, where in this time will finish formation of the cavitation cavities.

Thus, than more abruptly will be a forward front of a traveling shock wave of the high pressure, which are carrying out collapse of the cavitation cavities, so much the effectively it will be possible to concentrate energy of this wave on cavitational cavities.

And now for this purpose it is necessary to make so, so as, the as far as possible, was more a steepness of forward front  "C" -  "D" of the electric current (see drawing 30), which flow in wires of coils of coil L (see drawing 20). But here we also collide with the certain difficulty. The fact what the implication of inductance of coils L can be rather considerable.

I shall remind: at use for excitation of mechanical fluctuations of cylindrical oscillator it is supposed to apply system of windings (electromagnetic coils), which be stacked in the grooves executed in a ferromagnetic material. And in particular from of what coils adjoin to ferromagnetic the value of their inductance
L considerably grows.)

From of the elementary physics we know that any inductance, existent in an electric scheme, be of counteracting to any quick change of an electric current (see drawing 24), where I show the electric scheme, which consisting from of the voltmeter, the ammeter, a source of a constant voltage, key
SA and the coil of inductance L (the strangler).

nuclear fusion

Drawing 24.

 

At inclusion of electrical key SA on a scheme, which parallel to the voltmeter, and consist from of the ammeter and a strangler will be sent of the signal of inclusion (the voltmeter will show abrupt the jump of the electrical voltage). However caused of by this the by jump of voltage, of the electric current, which be flowing through the ammeter and a strangler, will have substantially smaller velocity of increase of a implication, i.e. the steepness of forward front of an electric current will be much less implication of steepness of forward front of a signal of inclusion of a voltage (see drawing 25).

nuclear fusion

Drawing 25.

 

We can bypass the specified difficulty:  "slow increase of an electric current in a scheme, which is containing the big inductance", if to pay attention to one feature of the form of the time diagram of a electric current.

The fact is that the corner of an slope of the diagram of a electric current at the zero time (in moment of time t0) depends on implication of an electric voltage of a signal of inclusion (see drawings 26 and 27), where are represented of the time diagrams of voltage and of the appropriate electric currents.

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Drawing 26.

 

nuclear fusion

Drawing 27.

 

On a drawing 33 the electric voltage of a signal of inclusion matters U1, here of a slope (the steepness) of the diagram of the electric current, which is flowing in an electric scheme with the inductance, at the zero moment of the time t0 will have with an axis t (an axis as abscissa) the corner: 1.

Later we send at the same the scheme, which contain the same the inductance, the electric voltage of a signal of the inclusion twice as much in comparison with U1, i.e. U2 = 2 . U1. Thus the corner 2, which is characterizing of the slope (the steepness) of the time diagram of the electric current in moment of zero time t0, will be twice as much in comparison with the corner 1. (See a drawing 27).

Thus, becomes clear, how we can increase a steepness of forward front
C - D an electric current (see drawing 23), which pass through the coils L (see drawing 20), and how we can increase the steepness (the force) of the shock of the traveling wave, spreading in spherical oscillator. For it is necessary the connect to electric coils L a source of a high voltage. And this source of a high voltage should be connected to coils L only on very short time (for the period of action of transients). Otherwise, if the source of a high voltage will be connected to coils L the during of more time, then after the termination(discontinuance) of transients in a electric scheme containing L, will proceed be flowing unnecessarily strong electric current, that can turn into for us useless scattering of vigour, and even electric puncture (rupture) of isolation of coils L owing to heating its coils by the big electric current. Therefore I once again emphasize, that the source of a high voltage should be connected to coils L only for the period of action of transients.

With the specified task successfully will cope the condenser of small electro-capacity capable without dielectric breakdown to stand a high voltage on the capacitors plates (see drawing 28).

nuclear fusion

Drawing 28.

 

The electronic scheme submitted on a drawing 28 works so: in the beginning the electric current through the coil L does not pass, since mobile contact of three-position switch SA1 is in the average position so, that the electric circuit is broken off. At this time the high-voltage condenser of small electro-capacity C3 will be charged from a high-voltage source. Later, when shall made action of the switch SA3 then the source of high-voltage switch-off from a capacitor, and the capacitor C3 will connected to a scheme. The high-voltage diode VD2 has such polarity of connection with scheme, what he be closed by the high voltage of condenser C3, and he (the diode) not give to him opportunities be unloaded through rather low-voltage galvanic cell: GB2.

Now, if to move the mobile contact of three-position switch SA1 in the extremely right-hand position then we will link up the circuit and in the coil L will is flowing an electric current. On a drawing 29 are shown the time diagrams of the voltage enclosed by the ends of the coil, and an electric current proceeding in her.

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Drawing 29.

 

The sharp peak on the diagram of a voltage is caused by the connection L to the high-voltage condenser of small electro-capacity C3. After discharge of condenser C3 through of coil L, diode VD2 will open and galvanic cell GB2 will be connected to electric circuits (a horizontal site of the diagram of a voltage after peak, which be caused by discharge of capacitor C3). And necessary draw attention, to the time diagram of a electric current where we have the form nearer to rectangular, exactly it we and want achieving.

Thus, we can fundamentallyincrease a steepness of an electric current on site  "C" -  "D" (see drawing 23) and consequently, we can amplify and the steepness of forward front of a running shock wave of the high pressure, which make collapse of the cavitational cavities in the geometrical centre of symmetry of cylindrical oscillator.

In the similar way (how hookup of the high-voltage condenser of small electro-capacity for the period of transients ) be possible to increase and the steepness of front of site  "A" -  "B" (see drawing 30), which be responsible for creation in cylindrical oscillator of a running wave of the lowered pressure.

Now we will consider the question of a manufacture of the electric power with help of fluctuations of walls of sound oscillator.

(I shall remind once again, what above about of two possible modes of excitation of fluctuations of walls of oscillators: by means a variable magnetic field and with the help of piezoelectric effect. Here I restrict oneself at talking of electricity production, on an example of sound oscillator, the fluctuations them of walls are caused by a variable magnetic field, and generating of electric energy occurs with the help of the phenomenon of an electromagnetic induction. The modes of electricity production and the electric schemes, which stimulates fluctuations in oscillators, working on piezoelements will be similar in many relations. And only in those rare cases when there will be serious differences, I shall make small remarks concerning of the electricity production with help of piezoelements).

And so, in the geometrical centre of symmetry cylindrical oscillator has taken place collapse of a cavitation cavities. Thus, in a place, where be collapse of cavitation cavities will as explosive liberation of  "superfluous" energy. Then from the geometrical centre of symmetry of the oscillator shall start spread of the shock wave of the high pressure, which on the own vigour repeatedly exceed of the vigour of the shock wave, with help which we earlier make collapse cavitational cavities.

Further this of a shock wave, which spread from of the geometrical centre of symmetry, will reach walls of oscillator and will cause their fluctuations. And already these mechanical fluctuations of walls of a sound oscillator can be easily transformed into a variable electric voltage (a variable electric current) by means of the phenomena of an electromagnetic induction or piezoelectric effect.

For the best demonstration of existent processes I once again return to a drawing 9 where in an axonometric projection be shown cylindrical oscillator and the external massive cylinder, which envelop of the sound oscillator. The number 1 designates ferrite walls cylindrical oscillator, in the grooves of which are stacked  "magnetizing winding" - coils, for which supply of energy from a source of a direct current. (I.e. as a matter of fact walls cylindrical oscillator - it the constant magnet). The number 2 on a drawing 9 designates an axonometric projection of the external massive ferromagnetic cylinder, which from outside envelop cylindrical oscillator. On an internal surface of this outside cylinder also there are grooves, in which are stacked wires - windings, on which is passed of the alternating electric current for excitation of fluctuations of walls of cylindrical oscillator. It will necessary so as to evoke in a liquid filling the central volume of a sound oscillator, of the traveling wave low pressure and traveling wave high pressure, which give birth and next do collapsing of cavitational cavities. (Conditionally these wires - windings stacked in grooves of the external massive cylinder 2, can be named how  "coil of exciting".) At radial mechanical fluctuations of walls cylindrical oscillator (i.e. differently at fluctuations of a constant magnet, what are walls cylindrical oscillator ) vary size of the air-gap, he on a drawing 9 is marked as numeral 3.

Thus, the implication of amplitude of a vector of the magnetic induction, which penetrating coil of exciting, varies, i.e. the appropriate magnetic stream be the vary. As a result of it in coil of exciting there is the variable electric voltage caused by the phenomenon of an electromagnetic induction. Now all problem is so as, take from the coil of exciting of a variable electric voltage, which is generated by mechanical fluctuations of walls cylindrical oscillator.

The specified task is solved by means of the electronic scheme, which be represented on a drawing 30.

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Drawing 30.

 

Later of the micro explosion, the mobile contact, already before to us met in other electric schemes, of three-position switch SA1, should be established in middle position. Thus all electric circuits intended for excitation of fluctuations of walls cylindrical oscillator be are disconnected from coil of exciting L. (Work of these electric circuits of excitation of fluctuations was considered by us earlier, therefore on a drawing 30 I shall not show these sites of a scheme).

Later we do simultaneous switching of mobile contacts in switches SA4 and SA5.

The electric voltage, generated in coil L by fluctuatings of the walls cylindrical oscillator, through closed contact of switch SA4 proceed on a straightening to the diode rectifier VD3 - VD6 and further on condenser C4, and from his cleats the consumer can receive a constant electric voltage. I.e. we managed to decide of the considered task - we receive a source of a electric current, the suitable for needs of the consumers.

Now it is necessary to explain assignment of other elements represented on a drawing 30: of the voltmeter, of the additional coil of inductance L', the resistance R, the switches SA5 and SA6. For this purpose we in more detail shall consider mechanical fluctuations of walls of oscillator, which is generating electric energy. (After each separate act of collapse cavitational cavities from the geometrical centre of symmetry starts to be diffused the running shock wave, which, having reached walls of oscillator, be reason of their fading mechanical fluctuations (see the upper diagram on a drawing 31). Where on an axis of abscissae is time t, on an axis of ordinates is postponed of the change of radius of the oscillator: dR.

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Drawing 31.

 

On the specified diagram each such separate series of mechanical fluctuations of walls of a oscillator begins with small splash - an increment of radius of a radiator (on a drawing 31 on the upper diagram this splash is marked by the latin symbol  " "), further be a stage of more significant the reduction of the amplitude of the radius (on a drawing 38 on the upper diagram this reduction is marked  " "). Presence of these initial vibrations of walls of oscillator is caused by that, what we create them specially, by submission on an entrances of coils L of the appropriate variable voltage, so as in a liquid filling a oscillator, appeared by a travelling wave low pressure and the travelling wave of high pressure, which will give birth and next do collapsing of cavitatilnal cavities. Later on the time diagram of fluctuations of walls of a oscillator we can see the abrupt increase of radius of a oscillator (this increase at the upper diagram of a drawing 31 is marked by a latin symbol:  " "), it is caused by that,what the divergent the shock wave created in the geometrical centre of symmetry of a oscillator in result of the micro explosion, with the big force strikes in walls of a radiator. Later will a stage of own fading mechanical fluctuations of walls of a oscillator, and these fluctuations we and use for generating of the electric power.

On lower diagram (see drawing 31) I showed development of the variable voltage arising on the ends of coils L as a result of the phenomenon of an electromagnetic induction. Thus the form of the diagram (development in the time) created by the electric variable voltage (see the lower diagram on a drawing 31) will remind, with small distinction, of the shape (development in the time) by the fading mechanical fluctuations of walls of oscillator (see the upper diagram on a drawing 38, small distinction of a phase of fluctuations is shown by the dotted vertical line which has been carried out from one diagram to anothers). Fluctuations of an electric voltage on coil L will also of the fading - they stop how only shall terminated of inducing them by a mechanical fluctuations of walls of oscillator.

Especially it is necessary to emphasize, what we can raise in oscillator the next running waves of low pressure and high pressure (the next act of collapse cavitational cavities) only after will by stopped, or become weak enough, the mechanical fluctuations of walls of oscillator, caused the previous by act of collapse cavitational cavities. Otherwise in a liquid filling a oscillator, there can be an interference of the residual waves, caused by the previous act of collapse of the cavitational cavities, with new travelling waves of low pressure and high pressure, which specially formed by us. And thus possible transformation of again formed waves into useless chaotic system of the waves, which not capable to creating and collapse of cavitational cavities.

Thus, additional coils: L', the switch key: SA5 and the threshold element conditionally replaced in the scheme by the voltmeter, exactly are intended to observe amplitude of fading fluctuations of walls cylindrical oscillator.

Earlier, during process of forced formation of the travelling wave low pressure and the travelling wave of high pressure, which carrying out collapse cavitational cavities in cylindrical oscillator, the scheme containing L', was switch off with the help of switch SA5.

I.e. this electric scheme be so, as though in him did not exist the inductance L', thus inductance not hinder of the energize pulses of electric current, for this simple reason I'm earlier and not showed on a drawings 20, 21, 28 those parts of the scheme, which contain L'. Now we in detail shall consider work of her elements.

The wires of additional coil L', how and of the wires of  "coil of exciting" L, are stacked in the same grooves of the external massive cylinder, which envelop cylindrical oscillator, (see a drawings 15 and 30).

During generating of a variable electric voltage in coil L by the varying walls of oscillator simultaneously will arise a variable voltage and in coil L'. (Electric voltage on the ends of coils L and L' are in one phase, difference only in the amplitude, of a voltage on the ends of coil L' is much less, because the voltage, generated from additional coil L' is necessary only for the organization of work of control devices.)

The variable voltage, generated from coil L', after straightening of arrive on the threshold element conditionally submitted on a drawing 30 by voltmeter. The threshold element carries out the own functions in two stages:

In the beginning, the threshold element allows to determine by meaning of a voltage the moment of time when fluctuations of walls of a oscillator will decrease so, that becomes already inexpedient to wait for their full independent termination, but to make sense several to speed up events, having stopped these weak fluctuations by inclusion special inductive dampener. This dampener will be formed in the electric schemes, which represented on a drawing 30, after switch on the coil L to the resistance R, instead of diode rectifier VD3 - VD6. For thereof the threshold element give steering command: will inoperative SA4 and becomes included SA6. Thus resistance R can be used in a role of a recuperator of energy, since with his help in addition it is possible to heat up a liquid, pumpable through central volume of cylindrical oscillator. I.e. resistance R represents itself as electric heating element. Thus the threshold element continues to trace a situation in cylindrical oscillator. He will work once again, give permission on excitation of the new act of birth and the collapse cavitational cavities in the geometrical centre of symmetry, when the fading mechanical fluctuations of walls of oscillator by will diminish to necessary amplitude (or in general will be stopped).

Now it is necessary to tell about the device of an additional piezoelement - analogue of additional coil L', if for work of oscillator do used of the piezoelectric effect. Thus the piezoelement filling space between walls of oscillator and an external massive metal covering, should consist of two layers divided by a thin metal layer, all device reminds of the flacky pie (see a drawing 32).

nuclear fusion

Drawing 32.

 

On a drawing 32 is submitted the local transverse incision of the piezoelectric filling, existing between walls of oscillator and an external massive metal environment covering him (the surface of section passed through the geometrical centre of symmetry of oscillator). The number 1 designates a metal wall of a oscillator, by number 3 - a metal wall of the external massive environment covering a sound oscillator. Numeral 2 designate two layers of the substance having piezoelectric effect. The new element entered by me in discussion is the thin metal layer which is situated in thickness of a piezoelectric material parallel to a surface of oscillator. (In other words, this thin metal layer is parallel to walls of oscillator and parallel to inside walls of an external massive metal detail, which covering sound oscillator.) As a matter of fact we now have received two piezoelectric cells - the thin metal layer 4 carries out a role of the metal capacitor plates, applied to a surface of two condensers consistently included in an electric scheme, and in them in quality dielectrics is used the substance, which have characteristics of the piezoelectric effect. (See a drawing 33, on he for a designation of the appropriate elements are used the same numerals, as and on a drawing 32). Thus, we in the right to replace one condenser C1 to two: C1' and C1' '.

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Drawing 33.

 

Work of oscillator, made with use of such modernized piezoelement occurs as follows: excitation in a liquid filling a oscillator, of the travelling wave low pressure and travelling wave high of pressure is carried out by submission of the variable electric voltage, which having the appropriate development in the time, on of the external plates of the modernized piezoelement which are submitted by metal walls of a oscillator and of an internal walls of an external massive metal covering. I.e. stimulating impulses of an electric voltage go to the elements 1 and 3, represented on a drawing 32. From the same metal elements we remove and an electric voltage at the electricity production, in process of oscillation of walls of oscillator already after the act of collapse cavitational cavities. While the voltage for a threshold element in time of the production of electric power we will receive from plugs 3 and 4 condensers C1' ' (you can see drawing 33).

The general electric schemes of connection of a piezoelement, without of sites the electric schemes of an excitation, can be such, as it be shown on a drawing 34.

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Drawing 34.

 

The drawing 34 by the own set of compound electronic elements and by their functional assignment very strongly reminds of the scheme, shown on a drawing 30, difference consists only in replacement of coils of inductance by piezoelements. The consistency of operations of switches the same as on the electric scheme, submitted by a drawing 30. (After was act of collapse cavitational cavities, mobile contact of three-position switch SA1 will is established in average position, what do disconnecting of piezoelements from of a schemes of excitation. Next simultaneously mobile contacts of switches SA4 and SA5 is switch on, it allows to generate of the electric power and connects to scheme a threshold element (the voltmeter). Next mobile contact SA4 is switch off, and after a small time interval mobile contact SA6 is switch on, etc.)

Now I show the general electric scheme, at which is uniting and the electrical schemes of the generating of the electric power and a schemes of excitation, you may look a drawing 35.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 35.

 

Here on a drawing 35 the site of a scheme, which create in a liquid, filling oscillator, the travelling wave low pressure, contains some new electronic elements: high-voltage diode VD1, a switch SA2 and the high-voltage condenser with small capacity C2, charged from a high-voltage source of a voltage. Assignment of these electronic elements in order that to increase a steepness of forward front of a travelling wave of the lowered pressure which will do forming in a liquid, filling a oscillator, of the cavitational cavities. Earlier I already considered methods of increase of a steepness of forward front of a travelling shock wave of the high pressure. In many respects functional roles of elements C1, SA2, VD1 will be similar to roles of elements C3, SA3, VD2, which already be used in schemes of excitation of a travelling shock wave of the high pressure. Therefore I already shall not describe here any more in detail the work of elements C1, SA2, VD1, but I shall send of readers to the description of work of elements C3, SA3, VD2.

The electronic scheme intended for work of oscillator with use of piezoelements, is submitted on a drawing 36.

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Drawing 36.

 

Now it is necessary to execute the promise: to present electronic schemes of switches on a basis of the bistable electronic elements. I shall show work of these switches with use of transistor schemes. Switches SA1, SA2, SA3 can be made under the scheme, which be submitted on a drawing 37.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 37.

 

The electronic switch represented on the drawing 37, consists of two unipolar MIS transistors with induced channels of  "p" and  "n" types of conductivity. Management of work of the switch is carried out by the clocked impulses, which give on the clamps  "D" and  "F". Thus occurrence on clamp  "D" of negative potential, of the relatively clamp  "F", will open transistor VT1 and an electric current can flow from clamp  "A" in a direction to the clamp  "B". On the contrary, occurrence on clamp  "D" of positive potential by relatively of clamp  "F" will close transistor VT1 and will open transistor VT2 therefore the electric current can flow from clamp  "C" in a direction to the clamp  "A". At absence of any potential on clamp  "D" by relatively of clamp  "F" both transistors will be closed and through plug  "A" at all does not flow any electric current. The submitted electronic scheme can work how the mechanical switch two-position or, in some cases, how mechanical switch three-position (these mechanical switches for pictorial presentation are shown on a drawing 44 near to the electronic scheme and their clamps are designated by the same symbols, as on the electronic scheme).

Now I shall present the electronic scheme of switches SA4, SA5, SA6, it is given on a drawing 38.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 38.

 

Feature of work of this electronic switch submitted on a drawing 38, be in that, what he should commute of an alternating electric current. (At this switch The variable voltage shall be linked on the clamps:  "A" and  "B";). The electric voltage on clamps  "D" and  "F" administer by the electric switch. If on clamp  "D" give positive potential concerning clamp  "F", then both transistors will open and through the switch will be flowed the alternating electric current (during one half-period the electric current will flow through one transistor, during the second half-period through other transistor, it is caused by use in an electronic scheme of diodes). If on clamps not send managing voltage, then both transistors are closed and the switch does not miss through itself an alternating electric current. For comparison near to the electronic scheme of the switch is submitted her mechanical analogue.

It, perhaps, everything, what I wanted to tell about principles of functioning of oscillators and the appropriate electronic schemes. Here still need further consideration a lot of the important questions, but I already no want discussing theirs. The electronic schemes, submitted here have schematic character, they be given here only for demonstration of assignment and a sequence of operation of those or another electronic elements. In real device of the oscillators the electronic schemes can have serious differences. So, for example, on the electronic schemes shown on drawing 20, 21, 35 and 36 there are galvanic cells of a direct current: GB1 and GB2. Therefore can arise the erroneous opinion, that for own the of work the oscillators the all time use energy of this galvanic cells. In reality, the galvanic cells will be used only on the initial stage - for start of work of oscillators, and in a consequence galvanic cells should be detached from the schemes of excitation, and all electric power necessary for work of a oscillator will be generated by the oneself oscillator. (In this case galvanic cells act in a role of a similar role of the electrical accumulator battery, which we used for launching, in the automobile, supplied with the engine of internal combustion).

Necessary to notice, that, considering submitted here of the way of the production of the electric power by the fluctuating walls of oscillator, I at all do not offer completely to refuse production of the electric power with the help of the external generator, with the rotor, which rotates from the steam turbine. On the contrary, I mean compatible production of the electric power how from the external generator, reducible in movement by the steam turbine, so, and by the getting of the electric power from fluctuations of walls of oscillator. It is necessary to take into account, what the coefficient of efficiency of the steam turbine approximately 45 %, coefficient of efficiency of the electric generator, with rotor, which rotate from the steam turbine, approximately 90 %. Thus, coefficient of efficiency of transformation of the thermal energy of the hot steam in the electric power at use only the external generator, which to set in motion by the steam turbine, will is approximately 40 %. While process of generating of the electric power by directly mechanical fluctuations of walls of oscillator at once will give coefficient of efficiency approximately 80 - 90 %. It is necessary to remember and this, that the electric power a more qualitative kind of energy in comparison with thermal energy (more qualitative in the those sense, what is easier for transferring the electric power at a great distances and she is easier for of converting to other kinds of energy - in energy of movement or in the same of thermal energy. While to impart on a great distance and, what the most important, to transform thermal energy in other kinds of energy frequently more inconveniently).

But, moreover, due to extraction of energy from of the fluctuations of walls of a oscillator will arise the effect of the electromagnetic damping, which will did accelerating of the process of the dying-out of mechanical fluctuations of walls of a oscillator, what will allow a thicket to make acts of birth and of collapse of cavitational cavities in the geometrical centre of symmetry of a oscillator, i.e. then be opportunity appreciably will increase the general capacity of the device.




In February 2006 in magazine  "The technology for youth" was published my article  "Working pulse of a man-made star".

 

In October, 2006 in the same magazine was published the critical article of the V.A. Zolotuhin's

 

The design of reactor, which was proposed by Zolotuhin, certainly, is very interesting. However he is not deprived of the certain lacks.
So, the channel for removal of vapor gases of the microexplosion in oscillator of V.A. Zolotuhin's is located not by the very rational mode. The area of section of channel, certainly, will little, but he approaches to the working chamber of oscillator on the part of focusing lenses - in those places which the most active participation in focussing, and its the channel do, let and little, but a disharmony in focussing waves. At the same time the rim discoid chambers of a reactor has rather big section and directly is not used for focussing waves, but only as channel of the mhd-generator.
In this connection it would be logical to connect these tubes to a rim of a disk. For example, so:

nuclear fusion

Drawing 39.

Where by numbers are designated: 1 - the working chamber of a reactor; 2 - the channel of removal of the vapor gases of the microexplosion; 3 - the generator of a shock wave; 4 - an acoustic lens of the big speed of a sound; 5 - an acoustic lens of small speed of a sound; 6 - the ring channel disk of the Holl MHD-generator; 7 - a load-bearing unit - buffer; 8 - electromagnetic wires; 9 - the generator of ultrasonic waves.

 

I here specially show only slightly changed image of reactor of the Zolotuhin's and I even not make modification of the numeration, below I show of the axonometric projection of the working chamber of a reactor - tubes are attached to a rim where they do not impede for focussing of sound waves. Thus the positive technical result is reached - conditions of focussing are improved.

nuclear fusion

Drawing 40.

However and in such design, which already allows to bypass patent of Zolotuhin's, there is a rim (the ring channel of the disk Hall MHG-generator), which have rather big section, not participating in focussing waves. Therefore it is possible to offer one more design in which cylindrical waves will be transformed in spherical. The axonometrical section such the reactor is shown in the following image:

nuclear fusion

Drawing 41.

The section of the mono-bubble cavitational reactor, in which be a transformation of cylindrical sound waves in spherical.

1 - the working chamber; 2 - the tube of removal of the vapor gases of the microexplosion; 3 - a tube of submission of a fresh portion of a working liquid; 4 - a cylindrical acoustic lens of the big speed of a sound; 5 - a ring acoustic lens of small speed of a sound; 6 - the internal ferromagnetic cylinder; 7 - the external surrounding the ferromagnetic cylinder; 8 - the wires of the electromagnets; 9 - a gap between electromagnetic ledges of cylinders.

 

Thus the working chamber of a reactor has the form of a spindle. In such design already there is no rim (the ring channel disk of the Hall MHG-generator), which does not accept participation in creation of the spherical waves. Only two small local areas, located along an axis of a reactor, are not used in focussing. Through them to the working chamber of a reactor and connect tubes, where is flowed the working liquid, with dissolved in her D, T, Li, U, Pl... Certainly, will make the working chamber of such reactor much more difficultly: for it necessary to take of the fusiform billet out of the metal, which is refractory to the heat, but, at the same time, this the metal must be easily accessible to chemical milling. We establish this the fusiform billet in the specially casting form, which have inner geometry similar to external geometry of a lens of the increased speed of a sound, and fill up her with metal, from which we will make the lens of the increased speed of a sound. Then after congelation of the metal we formed by means of a lathe and a grinding machine of the external form of a lens. Operational development of an external surface of a lens of the increased speed we do with help of laws of refraction Snellius. Later we drill along axis of the fusiform billet of the through channel and flush a chemical solution, which is carrying out chemical milling of metal, from which is made of the billet - so we can get of the necessary fusiform a cavity.
All it, certainly, more difficultly, but the similar design of the mono-bubble reactor, in which there is a focussing of cylindrical waves in spherical, will allow, how say,  "to lick" of the geometry of the working chamber. Similar the mono-bubble reactor will have characteristics better, than described by V.A. Zolotuhin.


The existing level of technics in the given area is presented by patents №№ 2096934 RU, 2125303 RU, 2258268 RU, 2005/0129161 US.
Reasoning from the analysis of the designs, declared by their authors, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that they will organize mandatory circulation of a liquid in the first contour of a reactor by means of the special external pump - in one case it is underlined obviously, in others about it is possible to judge with help of the indirect attributes.

It is necessary to notice, however, that in shown here the cavitational reactors of nuclear synthesis we probably can use a part of energy of microexplosions for organization of pumping of the liquid through the working chamber of a reactor. (The phenomenon of movement of a liquid at the action of sound waves was described in the literature is, you can see for example, in Big the Soviet Encyclopedia «the acoustic wind».)


It allows to refuse use of the external special pump, which do pumping of a liquid in the first contour of a reactor, or we can reduce its capacity.
For this purpose it is necessary to use in a designs of a reactors additional elements, which permit move of the half waves of the high pressure of sound waves in one direction and to suppress their distribution in other direction. As similar elements we can use the valves, the cumulative funnels, the reflectors, etc.

The general principle of work of such "sound" pump I show on a figure  42.

 

sound pump

Drawing 42.

 

 

The numerals 3 and 4 designate the valves, which to leak a liquid only in one direction. In the chamber 1 after of microexplosion 2 will the surplus pressure of a liquid, as a result the valve 3 opens and the portion of a liquid retire through valve the explosive chamber 1. After that the valve 3 will close. The working liquid in the chamber 1 cools down, i.e. reduces the own volume, and in the chamber the low pressure will created, therefore the valve 4 opens and the new portion of a liquid flows into the chamber 1 through him. Whereupon the work cycle will repeat.

However use of valves can appear not effective because their opening and closing and the cooling of a liquid demands time.

Therefore in case of with the cavitational nuclear reactor for creating the circulation of a working liquid in the first contour, it will be better to use not valves, but the reflectors and the collecting funnels, which change direction of motion of shock waves of the high  pressure caused by microexplosion, how it I showed on a figure 43.

 

sound pump

Drawing 43.


Where numeral 1 designates the explosive chamber filled by a liquid. By numeral 2 I label the nuclear microexplosion, caused by collapse cavitational of a cavity. The numerals 5 and 6 designate pipes, in which the liquid flows. We owes make the dispositions of the funnel 7 in relation to nuclear microexplosion so, that the shock wave of the high pressure enters into a wide part of funnel, later the wave will concentrate at its narrow end and leaves the working chamber, going in a pipe 5 of the first contour. The reflector 8 on the contrary, returns a shock wave of microexplosion in the working chamber, reducing an opportunity of its penetration into a pipe 6 of contours. Thus, under influence of shock waves of nuclear microexplosions the liquid in the first contour of the cavitational thermonuclear reactor gets the directed movement.

The reflector 8 can generate also the electric power from a shock wave of nuclear microexplosion due to the reverse magnetostriction effect or the phenomenon of an electromagnetic induction.

Probably also creation of the sound pump only with one tunnel without a special reflector how you can see on a figure 44.



sound pump

Drawing 44.

 

In this sound pump the geometry of the explosive chamber also will so, that conditions of penetration of shock waves of the high pressure, resulting as result of the microexplosions, for tubes 5 and 6 will various. Similar sound pumps can be applied and in earlier described the cavitational nuclear reactors.


In this case tubes of the first contour connect to the working chamber of reactors how is shown on figures  45, 46, 47 (arrows note a direction of movement of a liquid, under action of shock waves of nuclear microexplosions).

 

sound pump

Drawing 45.

 

On a figure № 45 I show  the connection of the tubes of the first contour  with  the cavitational thermonuclear reactor with a cylindrical oscillator.

 

sound pump

Drawing 46.

On a figure № 46 I show the connection of the tubes of the first contour with the cavitational thermonuclear reactor, filled by a dielectric liquid.

 

sound pump

 

Drawing 47.

 

On a figure № 47 I show the structure of the first contour of the monobubble cavitational thermonuclear reactor with cylindrical concentrating lenses.
Work of the sound pump of this reactor should be considered more in detail. The spindle-shaped chamber of such reactor is represented as a matter of fact as two flared funnels 7, which turned face-to-face by flared parts. On a narrow extremity of one of funnel it is necessary to establish the device, which make return of the sound waves back in the chamber, for this purpose we can use the reflector 8. The tube, by means which we inject a liquid in the reactor 6, is connected perpendicularly to axis of the spindle-shaped cavities in the narrowest part of funnel. In this place of the funnel after of the nuclear microexplosion 2 will be the greatest speed of current of a liquid and consequently, according to equations of Bernoulli's, the least pressure, what will cause inflow of the liquid from the injection tube in the working chamber of a reactor.

The note:
I have not found in the Russian-speaking technical literature of the description of pumps of a similar construction and have made the application on the invention in Rospatent. However the search which has been carried out by experts of Rospatent, has allowed to find out almost full analogue - the patent for invention № 3270688 US. Nevertheless, I have decided to leave the description of work of the sound pump on this site to show more evidently its application in the functioning a thermonuclear reactor.



In conclusion, I do cautious assumptions concerning where can find using of oscillators. I suppose, that they have the big prospects both in peaceful and in military spheres:

1. Stationary sources of thermal and electric energy (it is possible, on the basis of the principles, submitted here, it will be possible to construct stationary power stations, like already existing atomic power stations. It will allow to solve a problem of an exhaustion of hydrocarbonic fuel and so-called the  "greenhouse effect", already arising in foreseeable the future before mankind).

2. It is possible, that devices considered (examined) here, will of enough by compact, for using them as energy sources in various vehicles. In particular as steam boilers for steam engines. Similar devices can find using on nuclear submarines, the nuclear ships, nuclear planes, nuclear helicopters, nuclear trains, nuclear automobiles and even how sources of energy for the anthropomorphic (humaniform) robots. It here now it will be quite pertinent to remind, that modern constructions of steam engines have quite good efficiency, are compact enough, reliable and silent in work (see literary sources 10 and 11). Perhaps the one lack of steam engines it is the steam boiler and necessity in a heater of a liquid. One can hope, that using of cylindrical oscillator or spherical oscillator will remove these problems and will make steam engines more competitive in comparison with engines of internal combustion.

 

In view of everything told above, becomes clear, that there is no sense to spend astronomical multi-billion assignments for development of new TOKAMAKs, stellarators, etc.

Now it is necessary to consider of the hypothesis, which explaining the phenomenon of the sonoluminescence. I know, that the patent agency of the Russia, does not accept to consideration mathematical and physical theories, but in this case it is possible to make exception from a rule. The affair is so, that it not will be dependent from the given hypothesis of the sonoluminescence whether she is true or not true, but at use of the spherical or cylindrical oscillators together with running waves the physical processes can develop exactly in the such script as will be described below. And just use of this script of development of physical processes can be in a basis of the principle new energy sources.

Therefore discussion of below stated hypothesis of the sonoluminescence here is quite natural:

There are very many reasonings concerning such as physical phenomena, which is on a final stage of process of destruction of cavitations bubbles in phenomenon of sonoluminescence. I.e. be fundamental a question: which a physical process provide advent of  "unauthorized a energy" on a final stage. How already was written in previous, one researchers of the phenomenon of sonoluminescence speak about reactions of nuclear synthesis, other researchers put forward a rather fantastic hypothesis  "about extraction of energy from vacuum". (However, some cautious researchers of this problem do remark, what for in order that the occurred  "extraction of energy from vacuum" be necessary, so as velocity of a movement of layers of a liquid on a final stage of process will exceeded velocity of light ray! But it contradicts how we know, to the postulates of the theory of relativity of Einstein.) One may ask: "If someone from the leaders in science can put forward of the original "mad" ideas, which are in contradicting with by some fundamental the postulates of physics, then why and I am, the layman, can not do same?"

The last circumstance gives me the moral right to put forward the hypothesis concerning a question of appearance of  "superfluous" energy. It is necessary to notice, that I do not insist on that, what my hypothesis is solely correct, I simply specify one more opportunity of an explanation of the phenomenon. It is peculiar game of brains.

I put forward the following scenario of a final stage of collapse cavitations of a bubbles, by dividing him on three stages:

The first stage: at a final stage of collapse cavitations of a bubbles some molecules of a liquid have velocities, near to velocity of light rays, but nevertheless do not exceed her.

Because of this a meaning of pressure at a final stage be so large, that in some situations the process of collapse of cavitations bubbles do finish as formation of supermicroscopic (superlightweight) the black hole (the collapsar).

The second stage: the supermicroscopic black hole very quickly (like explosion)  "evaporates". (This process:  "evaporates like explosion" for black holes with small weight is considered in theoretical work of the english astrophysicist Stephen Hocking's. Which has shown, that tidal gravitational a forces, can seize one of components of a pair of virtual particles, which appear in vacuum near to a black hole.

Thus the second particle receives an opportunity to fly away from lightweight a black hole. For exterior observer this process seems how evaporates of substance with a surface of a black hole. Moreover, than a less be weight of a black hole, then will is more intensive process of a evaporates (of a explosion) of black hole. As show the computing, the small black holes should evaporate like an explosion. In this connection in the literature on astrophysics usually give a examples: the evaporating like a explosion so-called a primary microscopic collapsar, which have weight of a small mountain (several thousand a tons), at that process will is liberation of a energy same, how at explosion of several thousands thermonuclear bombs. In our a case, when the speech goes about of phenomenon of sonoluminescence, the black holes will have much smaller weights (about several molecules of water) and the liberation of energy will be incomparable less. But the mechanism of the liberation of energy can be same - the evaporating of microscopic black holes.)

The third stage: the lightweight elementary particles, born by the evaporating of a supermicroscopic black holes, will be efficiently slowed down in extremely strongly of compressed layers of a liquid, which on that moment of time surround explosive of a microscopic black holes. The thus slowed down elementary particles deliver liquid the energy, performing her heating.

Thus, it is possible to surmise, what on a final stage of process collapse cavitations of a bubbles there is the reaction of annihilation of substance, i.e. there is immediate the transformation of substance (molecules of water) in light radiation.

If we adhere to my hypothesis, then there is no need in bringing in for an explanation of extraction of energy of superlight speeds.

On a passing of reaction of annihilation of substance indirectly indicate and absence of residual radiation of the water, which earlier take part in experiments by a sonoluminescence [see a literary a source 12].

(Really, if we had only one reaction of nuclear synthesis, then we must derive a radioactive by-product, which inevitably should be formed at nuclear reaction.

And liquids used in experience, should become a radioactive, but in a literary source 12 specially emphasize, that it in experiment is not observed.).

If only we shall assume, what the energy in processes of sonoluminescence single out as of evaporating of black microholes, how suggest it I, and thus will formed only lightweight particles (the photons, the neutrinos and the electrons), which do not cause residual radioactivity of a liquid, then will become obvious, that the offered hypothesis will be rather good to be in according with the experimental facts.

Then will emerge the following question:   "Why the formed black microholes do not implicate our by gravitation proximate layers of a liquid in sphere its own action and do not involve their in the process a gravitational compression with the subsequent formation of a black hole with much more the mass?"

The answers to this question can be such: in process sonoluminescence will be formed very lightweight black microholes. Their gravitational field has essential meaning only on subatomic distances, where and there will be formation of the couples of virtual particles. But on distances the equal or exceeding nuclear, gravitational field already has usual meaning and is not capable to cause serious acceleration of ambient substance. And, besides, radiation, formed in result of evaporating of lightweight the black holes will push off ambient a layers of liquid hinder them of an opportunity to enter in a zone of a strong gravitation of an easy black hole to allow to merge with her and be increasing her weight. And, besides, radiation, formed in result of evaporating of superlightweight black holes will push off ambient by of the layers of liquid and hinder them to come in the zone with strong gravitational attraction of superlightweight black hole, i.e. the radiation hinder the unification and the increase of weight of the superlightweight black hole.

Here we may do the some analogy to nuclear reactions, in which far operable an electromagnetic a forces of the repulsion hinder nucleuses of two atoms, which have the positive electric charge, to be draw together on distance of the action of nuclear forces more powerful and short-range the of the attracting. I.e. the electromagnetic forces do not allow do join these nucleuses with each other in a more massive nucleus. Similarly, the radiation of lightweight particles hinder connecting of layers of a liquid with a superlightweight black hole, i.e. to prohibit for the molecules of a liquid penetrate into a zone of the subnuclear size with strong gravitation.

Thus, according to an offered here hypothesis, at of the phenomena of sonoluminescence we collide with liberation of energy of the evaporating (of the annihilation) of black holes, i.e. we in practice observe transition of rest mass of the substance in energy of radiation - the most energy-favourable process from known in modern physics: E = m0c2.



However, it is necessary to notice, that against of the it "black-hole" the hypotheses of allocation of energy, which I stated here, is possible to make several objections:

Firstly, it contradicts the law of preservation a baryonic charge.

Secondly, it is necessary to notice, what in the literary source 13, which is found by me, be underlined, that black holes have a minimal mass, which can not be less than 10-8 kg. (Ostensibly black holes with smaller weight can not be formed.) But at the same time authors of this article too assert, what they repeatedly managed to receive in laboratory conditions of the microscopic plasma black holes of the specified weight of 10-8 kg. Here is a some contradiction: annihilation of a black hole with such big weight should burst of laboratory of authors of specified article since in this process is practically instantly liberate of energy 9 · 108 joule, it is a energy of combustion of 24 litres of gasoline and her enough for heat up 300 kg of water from 00 up to 1000 C and evaporate. Meanwhile authors of this article remained live and healthy (their laboratory for some reason has not blown up from instant liberation of such energy). And, besides they assert, that they repeatedly managed to observe in the experiments the black microholes, with the specified weight, and they could even measure a some of parameters of the relativistic effects, which they observed near to these educations (delay and acceleration of time), which by judgement of the authors of that article, indisputably testifies to receiving by them of black microholes.

For an explanation of the arisen contradictions it is possible to suggest
a several hypotheses:

1. Regarding of the preservation of a baryonic charge: in the scientific literature occasionally there are doubts, that he is carried out absolutely in all cases. In particular on the opportunity of non-conservation of the baryonic charge at formation of black microholes indicate also and a ballyhoo, which be lifted in press around of the collider from CERN. On eve of start-up of the collider in mass media began to appear the clauses-horror films, where collider name as machine of a doomsday - at collision of protons began to appear black holes, which ostensibly will swallow up all Earth and the human civilization will perish. However the physicists is calming of all us, they speak, that black microholes, according to the theory, should immediately disappear. As acknowledgement of the words of supporters of execution of experiments on the accelerator of CERN indicate on the space beams, which the particles have energy on order of magnitude greater that which will be reached on the collider. Reportedly of physicists the space beams repeatedly generated black microholes in an atmosphere of our planet and if microholes could destroy the Earth it would occur already for a long time , however the Earth continues to exist many billions years. Thus, professional physicists, speaking about "evaporation" of black microholes, mean also and an opportunity of non-conservation in these experiments of the baryonic charge.

2. Concerning small quantity of energy which is allocated in moment of annihilation of a black microhole it is possible to assume, that the lion's share of the energy, which formed at explosive annihilation of a microscopic black hole, take away the neutrino - by the elementary particles extremely weakly interacting with substance. Therefore the laboratory of authors of specified scientific article has not blown up, and they have not received radiation sickness.

But what would not be by physical reason of occurrence of the phenomenon sonoluminescence, it is possible to assert with full certitude, what the information, which is submitted in these article, will allow:

The firstly, more effectively the investigate the phenomenon of the sonoluminescence.

The secondly, with a high probability it is possible to speak, what with use of sound oscillators on the travelling waves opens the prospects of creation of the very compact thermonuclear reactors, capable be placed on surface of the your writing-table.

Thirdly, there is an opportunity of creation of the principle new energy reactors, whose work is based on the annihilation of substance. (Even in that event, if this blackish-hole scenario, offered above, is not be carried out in experimental installations, which exist now (because of their imperfection), all the same, using of cylindrical and spherical oscillators opens an opportunity, let and in the remote prospect, uses of black microholes in the power engineering - it is defined by only physical parameters of installations.)


The phenomenon of cavitational thermonuclear synthesis can find use and in soldiering. We can consider these opportunities.


The conclusion

In the presented work there are no complex mathematical formulas. Here I describes only cleanly engineering ideas, which based on a rather simple logic. Nevertheless, these ideas, possibly, allow to achieve the Lawson criterion, i.e. will allow to solve by means of cavitation a problem of the Controlled nuclear synthesis.

Therefore once again I shall briefly state these ideas.

And so, for strengthening the phenomenon of cavitation with the purpose of production of the nuclear reactions is necessary:

1)      Use of a deuterated liquid

2)  The liquid in a oscillator should be initially subjected to static pressure, and moreover the liquid can have saturation by the deuterium.

3)  Use of the focusing oscillators (cylindrical or spherical), and their a geometry should be carefully verified

4)  The fluctuations of walls of oscillators are excited by electric signals of a special structure see figs. 6, as a consequence in a liquid filling a oscillator, there are the traveling waves arising: in the beginning a half expansion wave with rather small amplitude and frequency. This half rarefaction wave of small amplitude will generate in the center of symmetry of a oscillator of the cavitation bubbles (in case of a cylindrical oscillator the cavitation bubbles will arise on an axis of the cylinder, in case of a spherical oscillator will arise single bubble in the center of a spherical oscillator). At this case the initial small amplitude of a half rarefaction wave will provide the best localization of the cavitation bubbles. The subsequent behind a half rarefaction wave a half wave of compression, which will make collapsing of the cavitation bubbles(single cavitation bubble in case of a spherical oscillator), opposite should have the greatest possible amplitude and as much as possible abrupt forward front.

5)  After of dispatch to the center of symmetry of a oscillator of the traveling half wave of compression in the electric signal, which is raising fluctuations of walls of a oscillator, the stage of a relaxation duration τ3 should follow how you can see on figure 6, during which in a liquid fade the sound fluctuations which have arisen after collapse of the cavitation bubbles (of the single cavitation bubble in case of a spherical oscillator), or the amplitude of these fluctuations becomes so small, that they cannot prevent the new act of the production - collapse of the cavitation bubbles.  I.e. it is necessary to struggle with occurrence of a standing sound wave. On this sufficiently protracted stage τ3 also possibly fulfil on practice of the electric power generation directly by walls of oscillators at the expense of absorption by energy of the sound waves which have arisen in a liquid as a result of nuclear microexplosions, which will generated by a collapse of cavitation bubbles in the geometrical center of symmetry of a oscillator.

6)  At use in a cylindrical oscillator of a dielectric liquid, it is possible to try to strengthen a concentration of energy in the cavitation bubbles which have arisen on an axis of symmetry of a cylindrical oscillator, having applied high-voltage of the electric field focused along an axis. The plasma arising in process of collapse of the cavitation gas bubbles, under action of this electric field will polarized - there will arise a movement of the electric charges, i.e. will an additional warming up of plasma. In same time the converging sound half wave of the raised pressure will continue compression of the little plasma cylinder, what also raises the likelihood of fulfilment of Lawson criterion. It is possible to tell, that in this case there will be the singular forced "pinch effect" caused by compression of a plasma current by the focused sound wave.

7)     In some cases a part of energy of nuclear microexplosions probably we can use for organization by gyration of liquids through the working chamber of a reactor. It will allow to refuse the external mechanical pump or to lower its nominal capacity.

The ideas, stated here, require the experimental verification (the author of this Web site for that does not have opportunities).

Besides, on this Web site I am not considering some questions which earlier the researchers carried to rank number of secondary. For example, a problem of division of products of the reactions, which will exist in process of work of a thermonuclear reactor.

The fact is that researchers in all visibility gave to this question (division of products of reactions of a thermonuclear reactor) not enough attention. It is easily explainable: at the moment the founders of the tokamaks and installations of laser synthesis solve a problem of achievement of Lawson criterion, and the question of division of products of reactions has been left so far «for leisure».

However now, when the question of achievement of Lawson criterion, most likely, is solved by means of use of the cavitation reactors, then the problem of division of products of reactions of thermonuclear synthesis can becomes prime.
So, if we shall use as thermonuclear fuel not the deuterium and tritium, but of the He3, imported from the Moon, then we can have a problem. To us will be difficult to separate the unreacted "fuel": He3 from "slag": He4, which arises during work of reactor. But will throw out He3 together with He4 too prodigally. Therefore at present it is necessary to develop the economic compact devices which would allow effectively to dismember the various isotopes.

 

A.J. Streltsov.

 

 

 



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