The method of Streltsov's of improvement of 3D printer,
which is intended for manufacturing the metallic goods.

The Web site is written on materials of the application for the invention  ©   :-) 

The invention concerns to technology of 3D printer, intended for manufacturing the metallic products of the complex form.

Point 1. Difference of the declared invention from the existing analogues be so, what instead of the laser, which has low coefficient of efficiency (usually in the laser in radiation will be transformed about 20 % of brought energy, the all other portion of energy turn into heat and will useless dissipates), is used the injector, developed by experts of the Japanese firm "NAKAYAMA STEEL WORKS, LTD", which they used for covering by the amorphous metal film of crankshaft of motor vehicles (the patent of Japan # 4579317). The specified injector in process of fusion of metal has greater coefficient of efficiency in comparison with the laser (the most part of the energy brought to an injector, we passed on fusion of metal or already the fused metal be move to injector), what will allow to lower energy expenses at creation of metal products in the 3D printer. This injector has the narrow (dot) diagram of sprinkling of the fused metal, what in aggregate quite allows him to compete in the 3D printer with the laser at manufacturing of bulky metal products of a low class of accuracy.

Besides in the traditional 3D laser printer, which usually produce the metallic products, we use as "ink" of the metal powder. However how it is known, at grinding of substance the area of a superficial layer will have increase, hence, and the area of a layer of oxidation will have increase. Therefore in the metal products made on traditional 3D laser printers with use of powder metal "ink", it is inevitable in a significant amount there is and oxide of metal (oxygen) what have an negative influence on strength characteristics of made products. (The elucidation: each grain of powder "ink" during manufacturing and saving almost for certain will be oxidized outside by oxygen of an atmosphere, i.e. we can conditionally speak - they will become covered by a "rust", and lets even it will be very thin layer. In traditional 3D the printer this grain is fused under action of the laser in an atmosphere of inert gases, the internally contained grains will flow out from oxide environments and will alloyed with other layers of metal, which was fused on a product earlier, however an oxide environment "the rust" of grains no disappear nowhere - she too will contained in an our product. In the further it can do increase in fragility of a product).

In case of use of an injector of problems with oxides in a product will less, since it is possible to receive preliminary the melt of metal from more massive pieces of the metal raw material having the smaller area of an external layer, for example, from a wire or preliminary fused in crucible of metal, i.e. in that method the quantity of oxide metal will less and so it is possible to improve the strength characteristics of a product.

Besides with the purpose of improvement of the strength characteristics of a product we can during manufacturing create between an atomizer and a product a difference of electric potentials: an atomizer to connect to a positive source of a voltage, a product - to negative. The molten drops of metal which fly out from an atomizer, because of thermionic emission and loss of electrons, will have a positive electric charge. As a result they will have in an electric fields of additional acceleration aside of products, and besides it the difference of potential between drops of metal and a product will increase cohesion what will positively affect on strength characteristics of a product.

If we will take account, that the Japanese firm, specified above, successfully applies the specified atomizer to getting of amorphous metal coverings within several years, then we can hope, that at use of a similar atomizer in 3D printer and selection of the certain technological modes it will be possible to receive thick metal 3D products of the complex form with amorphous structure of an allocation of atoms.. (As it is known, that  metals with amorphous structure of an arrangement of atoms are not subject to corrosion and possess strength characteristics in some times best by comparison with traditional metal products with a crystal lattice).

 

Point 2. A method have such different that instead of the laser (of the focusing injector, which described in the patent # 4578317 Jp) in the 3D printer we use a ultrasonic electro arc focusing atomizer, his prototype I described in own application for the invention from 2003.

For this purpose in an atmosphere of inert gas (for example, argon) an atomizer, having on an axis the hollow channel, connect to a positive pole of the electric power supply, a metal substrate of the future product connect to a negative pole of the electric power supply. Later we provoke ultrasonic fluctuations of an atomizer. Along the axial channel of an atomizer we pump preliminary fused metal which after an output from the channel of an atomizer is sprayed under action of ultrasonic fluctuations. Between an atomizer and a substrate will arise an electric arc. In addition to ultrasonic dispersion also is possible and the organization of spraying metal by gas - by means of argon or other inert gas. The liquid drops of the fused metal by reason of thermionic emission and losses electrons get a positive electric charge and fly aside negatively charged product, getting an additional warming up in the electric arc. Besides it the gas stream will blow a drop of the fused metal from atomizer in the direction of a product, and if necessary we can also use and the gravitational field of the Earth. Around of an atomizer the focusing cylindrical nozzle, similar to those which is described in the Japanese patent # 4579317 Jp is established.

 

The general scheme of a ultrasonic atomizer with focusing is on a image:

 

 

amorphous metal

 

 

Where: 1 - a metal product of the complex form on which carry out sprinkling the next layer of metal; 2 - the spraying atomizer (injector), which make ultrasonic fluctuations; 3 - the channel of supply of preliminary fused metal; 4 - the channel of supply of the inert gas, intended for dispersion (spraying) of fused metal; 5 - the electric arc with the metal drops, she narrowed in a spot of small diameter by action of the dilative of the inert gas 6, pumped to a cylindrical nozzle 7, which surrounding atomizer; 8 - the electric source for creating the electric arc; 9 - the inert gas, forced in a gap between an atomizer and a cylindrical nozzle, he also carry away drops of the sprayed metal in a direction of a product.

The similar electroarc atomizer will allow to make on the 3D-printer of complex metal products with smaller quantity of oxides in comparison with the method, described in Point # 1. Probably, given method will allow to make volumetric metal products of the complex form with amorphous structure of an allocated atoms, if we will QUICKLY serially spray THIN layers of metal.

 

Also it is quite probable, what by means of the technology, which will similar described here, it will be possible to receive in 3D the printer of a product from refractory metals. For these purposes, however, will have to use plasmatron with a focusing nozzle, and as "ink" a powder of refractory metal.

Thus, replacement in the 3D printer of the laser by the spraying atomizers (or their joint, serial use) gives following advantages:

 

1)     the economy of energy (cost of products can will decrease to such degree, that manufacturing of details can appear economic not only for prototyping, but also for serial industrial production)

2)     the improvement of strength characteristics of products

3)  tears off prospect of manufacturing of volumetric complex details from amorphous metal alloys.

 


 

 

The historical information: for the sake of objectivity it is necessary to tell, that already for a long time many researchers tried to receive metal products by means of sprinkling of the fused metal - see, for example, Russian magazine " Young Technician " # 9 in 1975 year, pages 8 - 11.

 

 

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